Within our analysis, show revealed that level of waterpipes used per week try significantly of this highest nomophobia

Waterpipe smoking is actually a well liked passion from inside the Lebanese culture, 31 and Lebanon gets the large puffing pricing in the Arab area 52 that have an estimated 53% of your populace old > 19 age being newest cigarette smokers 52 and you will 31% getting waterpipe smokers. 53 Waterpipes, labeled as hookah, argileh, shisha, goza, hubble-bubble, and you can narghile, come into sizes and you can distinctions however, mostly consist of an effective tubing, air device, line having an effective mouthpiece, saucer, and a pan where in actuality the edibles, primarily tobacco cigarette, is actually burned. 54 The newest smoke put is known as “hookah cigarette smoking” or “mouassal,” and therefore translates regarding Arabic to “honeyed” and free gypsy chat has now as much as 29% smoking and 70% honey/sugarcane along with glycerol and other tastes. 55 It may be smoked by the an individual however, always was passed around within this a group due to its effectiveness and you will therefore is seen as a connecting passion certainly organizations and you can is regarded so much more highly than just tobacco.

In this study, women who daily smoked using waterpipes was indeed a great deal more planning meet with the prognosis out of nomophobia but presented zero tall experience of cig, reflecting differences when considering form of recreational material play with. The causes for this differences are different but can become once the waterpipe puffing try a dormant pastime long-lasting between 20 to ninety minutes, providing some one free-time to make use of its mobile phones for activities. 29 Whenever you are cigarette smoking remains probably one of the most addicting ingredients, 56 only waterpipe puffing resulted in nomophobia, and it stays uncertain if other substances subscribe to the new addicting active of nomophobia.

Logical Implications

This study features character traits and you may routines since predictors for nomophobia as well as sociodemographic items. As the nomophobia is starting to become even more commonplace about informative market, it is critical to acknowledge related items to formulate interactive and you may precautionary strategies one to target one another characteristics you to improve (neuroticism and you can disinhibition) otherwise disappear (agreeableness and you will detachment) the chances from nomophobia, plus addictive routines (waterpipe puffing). Additionally, brand new Character List to have DSM-5 try reputable, quick, and fast to administer and you will features essential feature domain names worthy of further data for the individuals with nomophobia.


Nomophobia accounts have been analyzed implementing a survey and never compliment of good systematic interview; this is why, the fresh new responses may additionally is particular inaccuracies on account of respondents perhaps not trying to let you know vulnerabilities or because of keep in mind and you will pointers prejudice. Furthermore, the latest NMP-Q is not built to make prognosis away from nomophobia-it could merely aid in brand new evaluating process of the disorder-and extra testing because of the an excellent psychologist otherwise psychiatrist is required to result in the chosen analysis, and therefore as previously mentioned in the past is still being explored. As well, the new NMP-Q, as with any nomophobia questionnaires, doesn’t always have an excellent cutoff section and you may what is actually considered significant inside research could be recognized as reasonable in another. Although not, we think positive that really serious nomophobia once the discussed within studies leads to impairment, since it strongly has an effect on both business and you may public lifetime of anyone. And additionally, selection prejudice has been establish by refusal price. Recommendations bias is contained in observational degree while the players tend in order to overestimate otherwise underestimate its attacks. A residual confounding prejudice is also you’ll since there are products that may were associated with nomophobia however, weren’t taken into consideration.


In conclusion, this study exhibited the organization ranging from particular characteristics and you may nomophobia certainly an example out-of Lebanese adults. Just like the electronic explore gets to be more common within this personal and you may top-notch existence, nomophobia you will end up being a threat basis for nervousness, and you may prone someone should be aware of the risks. Coming knowledge will be manage precautionary and procedures strategies regarding sorts of good sense techniques. Other possible outlines regarding search you certainly will talk about the kinds of situations somebody carry out through its electronic devices as well as their connection with nomophobia.

While search to the people and its own effect on nomophobia really does exist, 6 including theoretical activities for example mindfulness, eight,8 browse on personality traits in addition to their experience of nomophobia is actually not having. Whilst relationships anywhere between characteristics and you may nomophobia could have been looked when you look at the prior studies, nine,10 essential attribute domain names particularly bad apply to, withdrawal, disinhibition, antagonism, and you can psychoticism have not been examined.

The objective of this study was to select an average points in the nomophobia during the a large decide to try away from Lebanese adults, specifically looking at the relationship with character traits and other sociodemographic items that may donate to new medical diagnosis including gender, adult position, and you can puffing (tobacco and you may waterpipe).